In late 2010, after a long series of accidents, President Ricardo Martinelli initiated the removal of the diablos rojos (red devils) from Panama City and their replacement with a network of corporate managed buses.  The diablos rojos had been in circulation for decades, transporting passengers about the capital and enlivening its environs with their thumping reggae, their screeching breaks, horns, sirens and flashing lights, and with their breakneck speed and roaring mufflers.  Bold pregones (proclamations) were emblazoned on the bumpers and bragged shamelessly of power, stilo, and talent.  The hyper-masculine vehicles were operated by small businessmen who competed in a highly decentralized system that encouraged flamboyance and reckless driving.  The owners imported old school buses from the United States and hired working-class painters to hide their age with eye-catching depictions of actors and singers, exotic landscapes, cartoons, monsters, athletes and wizards.  The images, which drew heavily on Afro-Caribbean aesthetics, served to humiliate opponents while entangling potential riders in a flurry of colour.  They also functioned as mobile galleries.  They nurtured an appreciation for visual culture and provided opportunities for proletariat artists to flaunt their skills in the face of elitist pretentions.  A “prity” diablo rojo was like a forceful dancer, overwhelming any caution or feelings of hesitancy and dragging its customers in from the sidewalk .  (Peter Szok, 2013)